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Incorporated in 1727, the population of Newmarket is concentrated along the Lamprey River in Rockingham County, New Hampshire. For a time, it was known as Lampreyville. Newmarket was a parish of Exeter until it was incorporated in 1727, and given full indepependent status by the legislature in 1737. Newmarket was a center for the New England shipping trade with the West Indies, including the importation of slaves and sugar. In the early 1800s, Newmarket developed a textile industry, beginning with the Newmarket Manufacturing Company, its first cotton textile mill, operating from water power derived from a falls along the Lamprey River, then from dams that were built upriver. Today, its mills are closed, and listed on the National Register of Historic Places. Before it separated in 1849, Newfields was part of Newmarket. Wentworth Cheswell, a teacher, Revolutionary War veteran, and the first African-American to be elected to public office when he was elected town constable in Newmarket in 1768, later holding such positions as town selectman, auditor, assessor, and justice of the peace.

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