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The German city of München, which means "home of the monks," is commonly called Munich. The roots of the city go back to the Benedictine monastery at Tegernsee in the eighth century. Henry the Lion, duke of Bavaria, granted the Benedictine monks the right to set up a market where the Isar River and the road from Salzburg met. n Later that same year, a bridge which crossed the Isar was constructed and the marketplace was fortified. In 1175, Munich officially became a city.

In 1506, Munich was named the capital of the reunited Bavaria, and it became the center of Germany's counter-reformation as well as the renaissance. The German Catholic League, a coalition of the Holy Roman Empire's states. was founded there in 1609. The Thirty Years' War began in 1618, and in 1623, Munich became the residence of Maximilian I, Duke of Bavaria. In 1632, Munich was occupied by Gustavus Adolph II of Sweden. In 1634, the bubonic plague struck, and approximately one-third of the population died.

Munich became the capital of the new Kingdom of Bavaria in 1806. Railways made their debut in Munich in 1839, trams in 1876, and electrical lighting in 1882. The Technical University of Munich in 1868. The first time the world at large ever saw a television was in 1930 at the Deutsches Museum, on the banks of the Isar.

As the First World War began in the summer of 1914, living in Munich became harder as the year went on. The allies began a blockade of Germany, which led to shortages in food and fuel, as well as just about everything else. The city was rife with right-wing political unrest and had been for a few years. There was talk about revolution, but while the mood was catching on, it would take a while. In the meantime, a young man named Adolf Hitler joined the Nazi Party in Munich, and he began holding meetings in a beer cellar in Munich.

The constitution of the German Empire was reformed a difficult agreement was negotiated between the royal government and numerous parliamentary groups. The document was amended to give more power to the elected legislature. Among the changes were that declarations of war and treaties had to have the agreement of the legislature, called the Reichstag. The changes were made official on October 28, 1918.

The very next day, on October 29, a mutiny broke out on the German High Seas Fleet, carried out by pro-revolutionist sailors who had volunteered to transfer to the Fleet. As they prepared to dispatch to the English Channel for one last battle against the Royal Navy, a mutiny began. The mutiny triggered the revolution which is now known as the November Revolution. Throughout the German Empire, revolutionaries took over civil and military powers in the cities. This takeover was successful and achieved with no loss of life.

On November 7, the revolution reached Munich, resulting in the abdication of the throne by Ludwig III, making him the last king of Bavaria. The Socialist Democratic Party of Germany demanded that Kaiser Wilhelm II also abdicate. He refused, and Prince Maximilian of Baden, who had been suggested as a successor to the emperor Kaiser Wilhelm, simply announced that the emperor had abdicated.

On November 9, the German Republic was proclaimed, and within a couple of hours, it was declared that Germany was now a "Free Socialist Republic." Prince Maximilian transferred his powers to Friedrich Ebert, leader of the Social Democratic Party, who would become the President of Germany.

In January, national elections took place, even as the fighting continued throughout Germany, and in order to avoid the street fighting in Berlin, the National Assembly convened in the city of Weimar. A new constitution, dubbed the Weimar Constitution, created a new parliamentary republic. A Soviet republic was declared in Munich, but the Freikorps, volunteer military units, put down the republic, which gave rise to the growth of far right movements, including the Nazis.

In November 8, 1923, two thousand Nazis, led by Adolf Hitler and supported by Erich Ludendorff, who was once the German army chief, gained control of parts of Munich in an attempt at a coup which is now known as the Beer Hall Putsch. They arrested the president of Bavaria as well as the police chief among many others. The Nazis forced them to sign an agreement endorsing the takeover and its goal to overthrow the German government. Four policemen and sixteen Nazis were killed, and Hitler was wounded but escaped to the countryside. He was arrested and charged with treason two days later. He was later convicted and sentenced to five years, which is when he dictated Mein Kampf. He served only nine months of his sentence. Later, Hitler's first concentration camp, Dachau, would be established ten mines outside Munich.

 

 

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