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The city of Stuttgart is the capital of Baden-Wurttemberg in southwestern Germany. Its name is in honor of the stud farm which was established by Duke Lutolf of Swabia during the Hungarian invasions for his cavalry. Geographically, Stuttgart is situated on the Neckar River in a fertile valley which is known in the region as the "Stuttgart Cauldron," with the Swabian Alp to the south and the Black Forest to the west of the city.

In 83 AD, the Roman Empire conquered the area and built a fortified military camp, called a castrum, which is the reason the area became a very important regional center for centuries. As frequently happens near military installations, a settlement quickly grew around the castrum. In the third century, the Alamanni tribe drove the Romans past the Danube and Rhine Rivers. From that point until the seventh century. We do know from archaeological discoveries that there was a large amount of farming during that time and that the population grew. We also know that various Germanic groups, including the Franks, the Goths, and the Carolingians, who were fleeing the Huns.

In the 13th century, the Counts of Wurttemberg ruled over Stuttgart and became their residence, which hastened the development and prosperity of the town. At the same time, the town had developed into a major center of the wine industry.

In the sixteenth century, the population grew, but the Thirty Years' War, fought from 1618 until 1648, set the city back substantially as it did most of Europe.

The Industrial Revolution in the late 19th century made Stuttgart a major industrial center. Chemicals, electrical equipment, optical instruments, and eventually, cars were all manufactured in Stuttgart.

During the World War II, Stuttgart was invaded by the French and the Americans. The city center was destroyed by Allied bombs. Among the historic buildings in Stuttgart is called the Old Castle. It was originally water castle, which is a castle that is surrounded by moats. The Landesmuseum, which has exhibits from the Stone Age as well as Roman paintings and other artifacts, and various items which tell the ancient history of the region is attached.

It was built in 950 and became the residence of the Counts of Wurttemberg. It was renovated from 1553 to 1578 by Duke Christoph and his son Duke Louis III, who added a church, a conference room, and a staircase. It was damaged by fire in 1931 and lost two towers and the Knight's Hall. Numerous items in the museum were destroyed during another fire during World War II. The castle was repaired in 1971.

The Old Castle museum is dedicated to Claus von Stauffenberg, a one-time resident of Stuttgart who tried to assassinate Hitler. Claus was born a Count, the third of four boys born to Alfred Justinian and his wife Caroline. The two eldest children were twins, and Claus himself had a twin brother Konrad, who died the day after they were born. The 1919 Weimar constitution abolished the privileges of nobility.

He was an officer of the German army during World War II. In April, 1943, the car he was in was strafed by American aircraft, and he sustained grave wounds. He lost his left eye, right hand, and two fingers on his left hand and spent three months in the hospital. He had been disenchanted with Hitler's policies. While he agreed with some of Hitler's policies, he had believed Hitler's his stated principle of "community good before the individual good." The Night of the Long Knives and Kristallnacht gnawed at Claus, who had come to realize were signs that Hitler was not looking for justice or community.

He spent months recuperating at home, and in the fall of 1943, he fell in with anti-Nazi soldiers who were plotting Operation Valkyrie, a plot to kill Hitler and take control of Germany. The conspirators reasoned that even if they failed, the action would show the world that Germany and the Hitler regime were not the same thing.

Due to his position in the army, he had access to Hitler, and he was chosen to carry out the assassination. On July 20, 1944, Claus was able to enter Hitler's briefing room. He had a briefcase with two bombs inside. He slid the case under the conference table, then excused himself and left the room. The explosion killed four people and injured most of the survivors, including Hitler, who was only slightly wounded. Claus was quickly tracked down and shot in the shoulder in the ensuing shootout. He and two conspirators were executed and a third conspirator who had been undetected, jumped in front of Claus and took the bullets meant for him. Claus was executed on July 21 at 4:00 am. His last words were, "Long live our sacred Germany."



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