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The port city of Sunderland is located at the River Wear’s mouth to the North Sea. Modern-day Sunderland s composed of three distinct settlements by the mouth of the Wear.

Monkwearmouth was settled on the north shore in 674 AD when King Ecgfrith of Northumbria granted the land to Benedict Biscop in order for Benedict to found a monastery. The Church of St. Peter’s was founded in 674. The church would soon be part of the Monkwearmouth-Jarrow Abbey. What remains of the monastery, is the Church of St. Peter. The AFC football stadium, called the Stadium of Light, is perhaps the most famous Monkwearmouth thing known by most people.

One of Benedict Biscop’s most awe-inspiring accomplishments was his library, which displays hundreds of manuscripts which were created made or produced. The Codex Amiatinus, known as the “Jarrow Codex” or “Wearmouth Bible,” was produced around 700 AD at the Benedictine Monkwearmouth Monestery and is deemed to be the best preserved manuscript of the Latin Vulgate version of the Christian Bible.

Today, the old settlement which makes up modern Sunderland is called either the East End or Old Sunderland, and it is the home of the port, the quayside, and the docks. It was settled in 685 AD on the southern shore. The fishing settlement eventually became a port, and it was granted a town charter in 1179. In the 14th century, the town became known for its shipbuilding. Today, Old Sunderland is the quiet part of town and is mostly residential.

Bishopwearmouth was founded on the south shore west of settlement of Sunderland in 930 AD. King Athelstan granted the land to the Bishop of Durham, who oversaw the construction of the clerical manor called the Bishopwearmouth Rectory which housed royal officials and papal officers. One of the rectors at the Bishopwearmouth Rectory, Robert Gebenens, who was also called Robert of Geneva, would one day become the antipope dubbed Pope Clement VII during the Great Schism. The Rectory sat on a 130-acre parcel of land that. This land includes the Bishopwearmouth Cemetery Just to the west of this land, adjacent to the 130 acres, are 31 more acres on which sit a barn and park on the. banks of the Wear.

The Rectory was apparently destroyed at some point, but it was rebuilt in the 17th century, only to be demolished again in 1855. The archway which once stood over the door to the Rectory. The arch was later set up and in the last decade of the 20th century, a recreation of the original door attached to it in Mowbry Park, the modern-day public park on the property. The Sunderland Theatre now sits on the site where the original Rectory once stood.

In the 19th century, Sunderland absorbed Bishopwearmouth and Monkwearmouth. In the latter part of the 20th century, the traditional industries of Sunderland began to decline, and automobile building took up the slack.



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