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Mostly in Schoolcraft Township, a portion of the village extends west into Brady Township, Vicksburg, Michigan is in south-central Kalamazoo County.

Irregularly shaped, the village's downtown area is concentrated on the east, along East Prairie Street, North Richardson Street, South Kalamazoo Street, as well as along West Prairie Street, including the portion that extends into Brady Township.

Sunset Lake, a mill pond fed by Portage Creek, is on the northwest part of the downtown area, but the village limits extend north in a thin strip along the railroad, west of Gourdneck Creek, as far as East TU Avenue, and includes the Vicksburg Recreation Area. A wider, residential, area extends north, to the west of Sunset Lake and Gourdneck Creek, East U Avenue.

East of South Richardson Street (South 24th Street), the village limits extend south only as far as Grove Street, but, west of South 24th Street, an irregular boundary extends south to East X Avenue and the northeast shores of Barton Lake. This area includes Angels Crossing Golf Club

Other villages and cities within twenty-five miles of Vicksburg include Schoolcraft, Portage, Mendon, Kalamazoo, Centreville, Parchment, Athens, Galesburg, Three Rivers, Climax, Richland, Lawton, Mattawan, Marcellus, Augusta, Colon, Sherwood, Constantine, and Union City.

As recently as a couple of decades ago, much of Vicksburg and the surrounding area was primarily agricultural, but the adjacent townships and the village have become increasingly developed since in recent years.

Like most villages, the primary land use area in Vicksburg is residential, consisting predominantly of single-family homes, ranging from one to two and a half stories in height, and most with detached or recessed garages. Newer homes in the village are generally characterized by a combination of one and two-story structures with attached, front-entry garages.

Approximately one-fourth of the total land area in Vicksburg is devoted to public parks and recreational facilities, and this does not include school facilities. Major parks and designated recreation areas within the city include Angels Crossing Golf Club, Clark Park, Oswalt Park, Sunset Lake Park, Veterans Park, Vicksburg Community Pavilion Area, Vicksburg Historic Village, and Vicksburg Recreation Area.

Commercial properties make up less than two percent of the total land area in the village and include buildings used for retail, wholesale, office, entertainment, and services. In Vicksburg, these can be categorized either as neighborhood commercial or downtown commercial.

Just under fifteen percent of the total land area in Vicksburg is used for industrial purposes, mostly manufacturing and distribution.

The population of Vicksburg has mostly increased gradually during its history, with minor decreases in 1970 and 1990. However, its population soared by more than twenty-five percent in 2010, and again in 2020.

John Vickers, who would later become the village's namesake, moved to the area from Ohio in 1829, the year that Kalamazoo County was first settled. He settled along Portage Creek, then built a small grist mill along the banks of Rocky Creek. In 1832, he built a new mill on Portage Creek, known as Vickers' Mill. Vickers platted the area around his mill as Vicksburg in 1836. By the following year, Vicksburg had a general store, a blacksmith shop, a hotel, and a school, while the grist mill expanded to include a sawmill

A post office was established on February 3, 1837, as Brady, for the township that was organized in 1829. The first postmaster was Israel R. Brown. The post office was renamed Holland on June 16, 1843, the year that John Vickers died. However, the office took the name Lincoln on January 27, 1849, but switched back to Brady that same day.

In 1870, the Grand Rapids & Indiana Railroad came through, opening a station in the community. The following year, the Northwestern Grand Trunk Railroad laid its track through the area, connecting the village to both Port Huron and Chicago.

On October 19, 1871, the community was incorporated as the Village of Brady. That name proved not to be popular and, that same day, the County Board of Supervisors agreed to a citizen's petition to incorporate the village under the name of Vicksburg. On December 12, 1871, the post office took the name Vicksburgh, later dropping the ending letter.

In the early years of the railroad, travelers often found themselves away from home and in need of a place to stay. In 1880, there were three hotels in Vicksburg.

Today, there are no railroads in Vicksburg, but the railroad is still an influence, with the Canadian National Railway System maintaining the tracks. Freight trains pass through the village about forty times a day, although the former Grand Trunk lines are now part of the rails to trails program.

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