Aviva Directory » Science & Technology

Science and technology have a symbiotic relationship. It is through scientific knowledge and discoveries, that we are able to build new technologies, which often facilitate additional discoveries.

Science and technology are complementary, closely connected, and essential to progress. Scientific research involves a wide variety of fields ranging from the different branches of science to advanced fields, such as space exploration, human genetics, and cloning.

Science and technology are often used as synonyms, but they are not the same thing. The goal of science is the pursuit of knowledge for its own sake, while the goal of technology is to create products that solve problems or enhance living conditions for human beings. Technology is the practical application of science.

Science explores and seeks to understand how the physical world works through experimentation, analysis, and observation, while technology is a broad concept that deals with the usage and knowledge of tools and crafts, and a consequence of science and engineering.

Science is a system of knowledge concerned with the physical world and its phenomena obtained through unbiased observations and systematic experimentation.

Modern science is generally sorted into three major branches: natural science, social science, and formal science. To these, we would add pseudoscience although, as the name suggests, most scientists do not consider pseudoscience to be an actual branch of science. With the exception of pseudoscience, the branches are made. up of specialized but overlapping scientific disciplines with their own nomenclature.

The natural and social sciences are empirical sciences, as they are based on observation or experience rather than theory or pure logic, and can be tested for validity by other researchers.

As its name suggests, natural science is the study of the natural world, and is sometimes subdivided into two branches: life science and physical science, which may be further divided into specialized disciplines. The physical sciences can be sorted into astronomy, chemistry, earth science, and physics, while the life sciences may include anatomy, biochemistry, biology, botany, ecology, genetics, immunology, neuroscience, paleontology, pathology, toxicology, virology, zoology, and several others.

Social science is the study of human behavior and relationships. It can also be broken down into a number of disciplines, including anthropology, civics, criminology, demography, economics, geography, history, law, linguistics, political science, psychology, sociology, statistics, and others.

The formal sciences are disciplines concerned with formal systems like artificial intelligence, decision theory, game theory, information theory, logic, mathematics, statistics, and others. Unlike the other branches of science, formal science relies exclusively on deductive reasoning.

Closely related to technology, applied science is the scientific discipline that deals with applying scientific knowledge to practical problems, and includes such disciplines as engineering and medicine.

Technology is the application of knowledge in achieving practical goals in a reproducible way, such as the development of tools and the entire range of technological developments, from the earliest use of stone tools in prehistoric times, to the invention of the wheel during the Bronze Age, to more recent technological inventions.

Pseudoscience is a belief or practice that is presented as a scientific field of study but fails to adhere to a valid scientific method, or which lacks supporting evidence or plausibility. In another sense, pseudoscience is one that lacks status in the scientific community. Pseudosciences may exist within any of the scientific fields, in the paranormal fields, or in ufology.

Junk science and fringe science are closely related to pseudoscience, and may be represented in this section of our guide. Junk science refers to any scientific data, research, or analysis considered to be fraudulent or spurious, while fringe sciences are those that depart significantly from mainstream scientific theories.

Scientific organizations, publications, references, forums, and discussions are also part of this part of our web guide.


Applied Sciences

Formal Sciences

Forums & Discussions

Natural Sciences

Professional Organizations


Publications & References

Social Sciences