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Created by Arthur Whitney in 1985 to replace APL, the A programming language was intended to replace APL, but other developers at Morgan Stanley soon extended it to A+, adding a graphical user interface (GUI) and other language features, releasing the first version of A+ in 1988. Georg P. Loczewski and Britain Hamm developed A++ between 1996 and 2002.

While A+ is an extension of A, A++ is not related to either of them.

Although A is pretty much defunct, topics related to A, A+, or A++ are appropriate for this portion of our web guide.

A+ is a high-level, interactive, interpreted-array programming language designed for numerically intensive applications, particularly financial.

A+ provides an extended set of functions and operators, a GUI with automatic synchronization of widgets and variables, asynchronous execution of functions associated with variables and events, and the dynamic loading of user-compiled subroutines.

Available under a GNU General Public License, A+ is free and open-source software that runs on several variants of Unix, including Linux.

Despite the name, A++ is neither an extension or an update of A+. The name is derived from "abstraction plus reference plus synthesis," and is a minimalistic programming language built on ARS-based programming.

ARS programming is a programming paradigm built on three principles: abstraction, reference, and synthesis. These principles are a generalized form of the basic operations of the Lambda calculus. All of the essential features of a programming language can be derived from ARS, including the three major programming paradigms: functional programming, object-oriented programming, and imperative programming.

A++ was not designed as a language used to solve practical problems, but as a tool to demonstrate the core of programming, offering programming patterns that can be applied to other languages. While intended as a learning instrument, A++ can be used to write simple application programs, such as object-oriented implementations of a simple account handling and library management system. For real-world application programs, ARS++ can be used to extend A++ to a language similar to Scheme. ARS is an abstraction from the Lambda Calculus, taking its three basic operations, and giving them a more general meaning, providing a foundation for functional programming, objected-oriented programming, and imperative programming.

A++ is a tiny language, for which nearly everything is a function, while A+ represents nearly everything as arrays.



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