Aviva Directory » Computers & Internet » Programming » D (languages)

The focus of this category is on programming languages defined as D. There are at least three programming languages that share that designation.

The most common is also known as Dlang, a multi-paradigm system programming language designed by Walter Bright, of Digital Mars, and originally released in 2001. Walter Bright, through his Virginia-based company, Digital Mars, created compilers for C and C++, as well as integrated development environments (IDEs) for Windows and DOS, and continues to do so.

Frustrated with the direction of C++, Bright began working on a new programming language in 1999, releasing in 2001. The first version of the language was similar to C++, with a similar emphasis on the imperative, object-oriented, and metaprogramming paradigms. Although Bright first named his language Mars, for his company, the developer community dubbed it D, in recognition to its similarities to C++, and that's the name that stuck.

Bright soon realized that the first implementation of the languages lacked enough compelling features to overcome the strong backing that competing languages enjoyed, so he went back to the drawing board. He revamped the language and, while he continued to issue bug fixes for the first version, his second version was not backward-compatible. Released in 2007, the second version was not as similar to C++. It introduced several breaking changes to the language.

In 2011, development of the language was moved to GitHub, which led to increases in contributions to its compiler, runtime, and standard library. The first version of Bright's D language was discontinued in 2012, replaced by D2, which is commonly referred to as D.

The official D compiler, the Digital Mars D compiler, by Walter Bright, was released under a custom license which, although the source code was made available, did not conform to the open-source definition. In 2014, it was re-released as open-source under the Boost Software License, which excluded the back-end, which had been partly developed by Symantec. In 2017, the entire compiler was made available as open-source and is now part of the GNU Compiler Collection. Other compilers for D include GDC and IDC, which targets the LLVM compiler infrastructure.

Another D programming language was developed by Christopher J. Date and Hugh Darwen, but it's more of an abstract language specification than an actual programming language.

A third is designed to be used with the DTrace dynamic tracing framework created by Sun Microsystems in 2005. Originally developed for Solaris, D programs resemble Awk programs in structure.

Although the majority of the resources for the D programming language will be in reference to the language designed by Walter Bright, any of this would be appropriate for this category, along with any compilers, editors, or other tools designed specifically for use with the language, as well as user groups, forums, or tutorials.



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