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R is a scripting language used in statistical data manipulation and analysis, as well as a general-purpose programming language.

Designed in the early 1990s by Ross Ihaka and Robert Gentlemen, colleagues at the University of Auckland, New Zealand, R was highly influenced by the S programming language, as well as Common Lisp, Scheme, and XLispStat. R is currently maintained by the R Development Core Team, a group of eighteen individuals who have the exclusive rights to alter the source code's central archive. John Chambers, who designed S, is a member of the development team.

Influenced, in large part, by the S statistical language, R is sometimes referred to as GNU S, as the language was created as an open-source language. R may be considered a public-domain implementation of S, and the R/S platform has become a de facto standard among professional statisticians.

R also incorporates features found in object-oriented and functional programming languages. R is a dynamic programming language, which means that R automatically interprets your code as you run it. If you type a command that R doesn't recognize, R will return an error message.

R is available for the Linux, Mac, and Windows platforms.

Although R programmers typically submit commands to R by typing in a terminal window rather than clicking a mouse in a GUI environment, this shouldn't be understood to imply that R doesn't do graphics.

Free GUIs have also been developed for R, including ESS, JGR, R Commander, RStudio, and StatET. Of these, RStudio, StatET, and ESS are open-source integrated development environments (IDEs). Microsoft Azure also offers a development environment for R. RStudio is the most popular IDE for R. However, the language and the IDE are separate. RStudio is a wrapper around the language that extends its functionality.

A core set of packages is included with the R installation package, and thousands of others are available through CRAN (Comprehensive R Archive Network), and other repositories.

Other R package resources include Crantastic, a community website that rates and reviews CRAN packages, as well as from R-Forge, which serves as a central platform for R package development, R-related software, and projects related to the language.

Implementations of R include CXXR, FastR, pqR, Renjin, Rho, and Riposte. Microsoft R Open is a fully compatible R distribution with modifications for multi-threaded computations.

The official gathering of R users is known as useR, the first of which was held in Austria in 2004, and has become an annual event, meeting in various places around the world, since 2006, alternating between Europe and North America.

The R Journal is an open-access, refereed journal for R projects.

Topics related to the R scripting or programming language are the focus of resources found in this category. The language itself, as well as its implementations, IDEs, and any other tools developed for R programming, are appropriate for this category, as are R user groups, forums, tutorials, guides, and other content.

 

 

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