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This portion of our computer programming language guide features Pharo, an open-source, cross-platform implementation of the classic Smalltalk-80 programming language and runtime.

Pharo was forked from Squeak in March of 2008, the year that the language first appeared. It remains under active development on GitHub by the Pharo community, with the most recent stable release being in May of 2023, as of this writing. Available under the MIT License, with portions under the Apache License, Pharo is shipped with source code compiled into a system image that contains all of the software required to run Pharo.

Like the original Smalltalk-80, Pharo provides several live programming features, such as immediate object manipulation, live updates, and just-in-time compilation. The image includes an IDE-like software that can be used to modify its components.

Although Pharo is not a mainstream programming language, it is used by universities for teaching object-oriented programming due to its elegant design and simplicity.

Pharo's lineage traces back to Smalltalk, a venerable language that pioneered object-oriented programming. Smalltalk introduced the concept of objects, classes, and dynamic typing, influencing several languages that are well-known today, such as Java, Python, JavaScript, C$, Ruby, and others. Smalltalk was also the first to offer a graphical Integrated Development Environment (IDE).

Pharo's syntax is concise and straightforward, making it easy to learn. Its model adheres to purity and elegance, emphasizing clarity and expressiveness. Pharo encourages accessibility.

Pharo's graphical IDE supports live coding and debugging, allowing developers to experiment and iterate seamlessly.

Pharo stands out for its simplicity, elegance, and focus on productivity. Because it avoids the quirks and complexities found in some other languages, many programmers find development with Pharo to be less tedious, more pleasant, and more accessible than with some of the mainstream languages.

Although Pharo was created sixteen years ago, the language continues to be under active development by the Pharo community.



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